[1]Plachy and Hausler, 1999

[2]Youngs, et al, 1999

[3]See Lloyd, et al, 1999 for a reference to Christopher Alexander in this regard.

[4]Biological evolution is driven by changes in DNA produced by mutation, bacterial recombination, and symbiogenesis.  Symbiogenesis is the process whereby long-ago bacteria formed such inextricable associations with each other  that they created whole new life forms.  Every cell in every plant and every animal on earth contains myriad independently reproducing mitochondria, each with their own DNA and RNA, that are the living descendants of these symbiotic relationships. Lynn Margulis refers to our cells as “cellular corporations.”  Margulis, 1997.

[5]Species tend to emerge to fill empty eco-niches.  Generally this follows catastrophic events, such as asteroid collisions or the oxygen crisis.  Occasionally this is the result of new environments being created.  An example of non-catastrophic opportunism is the existence of some 170 of species of fish of the same genus found only in Lake Victoria in East Africa.  They evolved from a river-dwelling ancestor when earth movement suddenly created one of the largest bodies of fresh water on the planet. Rothschild, 1990.

[6]Devlin, 1991

[7]James Grier Miller provides a functional view of a living system which includes 19 distinct subsystems.  Within the realm of information processing he articulates the functions of memory, input transducer, encoder, decoder, decider, and channel and net.  He claims that the 19 subsystems apply at all levels of living system, from a cell to a multinational organization.  Miller, 1978

[8]The Viable Systems Model talks about five major subsystems for communication and information processing.  These are the operational units, a normative function, a command and control function, an R&D function that is oriented toward the future and the external environment, and an executive function that resolves high-level disputes in the organism or organization.  Clemson, 1984

[9]The human brain can be viewed from an architectural perspective, with low level functions collaborating to give rise to all cognitive capabilities.  Trehub, 1991

[10]Minsky, 1985

[11]See, for example, Lloyd, et al, 1999

[12]Leishman, 1999

[13]McDavid, 1996

[14]Youngs, et al, 1999