Levels of Analysis

At the heart of this issue is the business organization as a human social system. The key challenge is that social systems are intrinsically invisible. No one can point a finger at a social system, or reach out and touch one. A social system consists entirely of relationships among humans, and as such is invisible, intangible, colorless, tasteless and odorless. To that extent, a social system is more like software than hardware, and even less deterministic and controllable than any artificial system. This makes it important to have various lenses through which to view and construct representations that provide useful information in a usable form. Part of the representation question depends on how close you look.