Processes and procedures

The word process is linked with the word procedure here for a reason. Process is a highly used word, and has many meanings, depending on the context. One common way it is used is to signify the organized activities of the operational side of the enterprise. This tends to connote the idea of proceduralization, whereby the processes of interest are relatively deterministic and repeatable. This is an area where business has focused massive attention, on the assumption that ICT can be used most effectively, to enforce procedures, to support repetition, and to take over from people various behaviors that can be completely codified. This is also an area where the architectural view has spawned a number of tools to help the practitioner. A business process designer now has a number of alternatives that support various different process architectures, and tie into ICT activities in various ways.

•    Elements: activities, roles, role-players, outcomes, inputs, resources, flows, triggering events
•    Types: Typology of process is largely determined by types of results. So an automotive production process is quite diverse from a market campaign development process. Another key typology differentiator is the type of role-player, keeping in mind that ICT is considered here to be a role-player.
•    Sociality: Role-players, often human, are involved in most processes, so there is an intrinsic sociality.  Even the most robotic process has a human recipient, though in such cases the sociality is greatly reduced and intermediated by technology that stands between human participants.